Bronchial asthma is characterized by damage to the respiratory tract. Pathology is accompanied by painful symptoms, which significantly worsens the quality of life of the patient, and without treatment can cause death. In order to recognize the disease in time and take the necessary measures, it is necessary to consult a doctor at the first suspicious symptoms. Read more about the disease in our article.
With asthma, processes occur in the respiratory tract that cause irritation and narrowing of the passages. At the same time, the intake of air into the lungs becomes extremely difficult. That is why pathology never proceeds in an asymptomatic form.
- constant feeling of suffocation;
- lack of air, mainly occurring at night;
- whistling and wheezing during breathing, especially when inhaling deeply;
- exhaling is more difficult than inhaling;
- paroxysmal dry cough, which most often appears in the morning after waking up or at night;
- a feeling of tightness and heaviness in the chest.
Depending on the characteristics of the body and the severity of the pathology, the symptoms may vary. In some patients it is pronounced, in others it is more erased. Manifestations can disturb both for several hours and for two to three or more days.;
During an attack, a person has a respiratory disorder, a strong whistling and a suffocating cough appear. In addition, the patient is concerned about pain in the chest area, while the characteristic symptoms appear suddenly and develop very quickly — within a few minutes.
The most common reason is regular contact with allergens. These can be: animal hair, tobacco smoke, plant pollen, perfumes, household chemicals, cosmetics and even food. In addition, asthma often becomes a consequence of:
- genetic predisposition;
- poor ecology in the region of residence;
- frequent respiratory tract diseases that provoke hypersensitivity of the bronchial walls;
- severe respiratory pathologies suffered at an early age;
- sedentary lifestyle that causes stagnation in the body;
- frequent hypothermia;
- tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse;
- failures in the immune system.
According to statistics, women are most often ill. Pathology is diagnosed less often in men and children. The risk group includes smokers, people with a genetic predisposition, as well as those who live in megacities and cities with poor environmental conditions.
To identify the pathological process and its severity, the patient is prescribed:
- Spirometry. The technique is designed to study the functioning of external respiration. During the diagnosis, the patient takes a deep breath through a medical device that evaluates the main parameters of respiratory functions. This method is prescribed not only to detect the disease, but also during the course of treatment to monitor the effectiveness of prescribed medications.
- Provocative tests. They are carried out in the period between attacks to distinguish asthma from respiratory viral infection.;
- X-ray examination. It is prescribed to all patients, especially with regular attacks of severe form. X-ray refers to a highly informative study that allows you to identify hidden complications that require immediate therapeutic measures.
Asthma is treated by a pulmonologist. In some cases, the patient is referred for consultations to other specialized specialists (depending on the cause of the pathology).
The methods of therapy are selected by the attending physician depending on the form of the disease and the characteristics of the human body. First of all, the patient is recommended to exclude contact with allergens. Diet therapy is also prescribed with the exception of fried dishes, spicy, smoked, spicy, sweet, and other products that can cause allergies. People with diagnosed asthma should adhere to a certain diet and eat more steamed or boiled foods.
To maintain immunity, it is necessary to exercise (in the absence of contraindications), give up smoking and avoid a sedentary lifestyle. In addition to these measures, the doctor prescribes medication therapy.
The main groups of medicines:
- inhaled beta-adrenostimulants — used both for prevention and as the main treatment or during seizures;
- inhaled glucocorticoids are prescribed to relieve the patient’s condition, prevent the development of complications, and are taken for a long time;
- methylxanthines — show good results, but have been used quite rarely lately;
- leukotriene antagonists are used to block certain groups of receptors that provoke the occurrence of painful symptoms, are prescribed most often in combination with other medications;
- inhaled M-holinoblockers are intended for the treatment of bronchial asthma and obstructive bronchitis.
The basic treatment includes inhalation systems for inhaling medicines. The purpose of the drugs is the treatment of pathology of any severity and the rapid removal of painful symptoms. In addition, the products improve lung function and have an anti-inflammatory effect.
Important! Remember that uncontrolled intake of any medications is strictly prohibited, since their incorrect selection or incorrectly calculated dosages cause severe consequences up to a fatal outcome. To avoid this, do not self—medicate – entrust your health to qualified doctors!